Draft HKSAR NatSec Law

[Temporality adapted from China Law Translate]

The draft HKSAR Law on the Preservation of National Security is divided into 6 chapters with a total of 66 articles: the General Provisions; the HKSAR’s Duties and Entities for Preservation of National Security; Crimes and Punishments; Case Jurisdiction, Application of Laws, and Procedures; the Central People’s Government’s National Security Bodies Stationed in the HKSAR; and the Supplementary Provisions. This is a comprehensive law with substantive, procedural, and organizational law content; and the draft primarily include the following content areas:


(I) Clearly provide that the Central People’s Government (CPG) has basic responsibility for matters of national security and for the constitutional responsibility of the HKSAR to preserve national security. 

  1. The CPG has fundamental responsibility for national security matters relating to the HKSAR. The HKSAR bears a constitutional responsibility to preserve national security and shall perform its duty to preserve national security. The administrative, legislative and judicial organs of the HKSAR shall, in accordance with relevant laws and regulations, effectively prevent, stop, and punish conduct endangering national security. 
  2. Preserving national sovereignty, unity, and territorial integrity is the common obligation of all Chinese people, including Hong Kong compatriots. Any institution, organization, or individual in the HKSAR shall abide by this Law and other laws of the HKSAR relating to the preservation of national security; and must not engage in activities that endanger national security. Residents of the HKSAR who run for election or assume public office shall sign documents in accordance with law to confirm or swear to uphold the Basic Law of the HKSAR of the People’s Republic of China and their loyalty to the HKSAR of the People’s Republic of China. 
  3. The HKSAR shall complete legislation on preserving national security as provided in the Basic Law of the HKSAR as soon as possible, and improve relevant laws. 
  4. The law enforcement and judicial [justice] organs of the HKSAR shall earnestly implement the provisions of this Law and the existing laws of the HKSAR on preventing, stopping and punishing conduct that endangers national security, to effectively preserve national security. 
  5. The HKSAR shall strengthen efforts to preserve national security and prevent terrorist activities. The HKSAR government shall employ necessary measures to strengthen the oversight and management of schools, social organizations, and other matters related to national security.

(II) Clearly provide that the HKSAR shall comply with important principles of the rule of law in preserving national security. 

  1. In preserving national security, the HKSAR shall respect and protect human rights, and shall lawfully protect the rights and freedoms enjoyed by Hong Kong residents, including freedoms of speech, press and publication, freedoms of association, assembly, procession and demonstration, in accordance with the Basic Law of the HKSAR and the relevant provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as applied to Hong Kong.
  2. The principle of the rule of law shall be upheld in the prevention, stopping, and punishment of crimes endangering national security. Where the law provides that conduct is criminal, conviction and punishment are to be in accordance with the law; and where the law does not provide that conduct is criminal, it must not be convicted or and punishment. Prior to the judgment of a judicial organ, all persons are presumed innocent. Ensure the rights to a defense and other procedural rights lawfully enjoyed by criminal suspects, defendants, and other participants in the litigation. Any person who has already been found guilty or acquitted in final judicial proceedings must not be tried or punished again for the same conduct.

(III) Clearly provide for the establishment and completion of relevant institutions for safeguarding national security by the HKSAR and their duties. 

  1. The HKSAR is to establish a National Security Commission (HK-NSC), responsible for matters on the preservation of national security in the HKSAR, bearing the primary responsibility for the preservation of national security, and accepting the oversight and accountability of the CPG. 
  2. The HK-NSC is to be chaired by the Chief Executive with members including the Chief Secretary for Administration, the Financial Secretary, the Secretary for Justice, the Secretary for Security, the Commissioner of Police, the head of the police department responsible for the preservation of national security, the Director of Immigration, the Commissioner of Customs and Excise and the Director of the Chief Executive’s Office. The HK-NSC is to have a secretariat led by the Secretary-General. The Secretary-General is nominated by the Chief Executive and reported for appointment by the CPG. 
  3. The duties of the HKSAR’s NSC are: To analyze and assess the national security preservation situation in the HKSAR, to plan related work, and to formulate policies for preserving national security in the HKSAR; to promote the construction of legal systems and enforcement mechanisms for preserving national security in the HKSAR; and to coordinate key efforts and major actions of the HKSAR for preserving national security. 
  4. The HK-NSC is to establish a National Security Adviser (NSA) appointed by the CPG, to provide advice on matters related to the HK-NSC’s performance of its duties. 
  5. The government of the HKSAR is to set up a department for the preservation of national security, equipped with law enforcement forces. 
  6. The Department of Justice of the HKSAR Government is to set up a special department for national security crimes prosecutions, responsible for the prosecution of crimes endangering national security and other related legal affairs.

(IV) Clear provide for the four types of criminal conduct endangering national security and their punishment. The Draft’s Chapter III: “Crimes and Punishment” is divided into six sections, making clear provisions on the specific composition and corresponding criminal responsibility for four types of crimes: criminal separatism, crimes of subversion of state power, terrorist activities crimes, and crimes of colluding with foreign or overseas forces to endanger national security; as well as on other penalties and scope of effect. It distinguishes between different situations to separately provide punishments for the four types of crime.

(V) Clearly provide for case jurisdiction, the application of law, and procedures.

  1. Except in specified circumstances, the HKSAR is to exercise jurisdiction over the criminal cases provided for in this law. 
  2. This Law and the local laws of the HKSAR apply to procedural matters such as opening cases and investigation, prosecution, trial, and enforcement of penalties for crimes endangering national security. The trials of cases of crimes endangering national security that are in the jurisdiction of the HKSAR are to be proceed conducted through procedures for public prosecutions. 
  3. When handling cases of crimes endangering national security, the HKSAR government police department for the preservation of national security may employ the various measures that the extant laws of the HKSAR allow the police and other law enforcement departments to take when investigating serious crimes, as well as the related authority and measures provided for in this Law. 
  4. The Chief Executive of the HKSAR shall designate a number of judges from among the currently serving or qualified former magistrates, District Court judges, judges of the Court of First Instance, judges of the Court of Appeal and judges of the Court of Final Appeal, and may also designate judges from among temporary or special judges, to be responsible for handling cases of crimes endangering national security.

(VI) Clearly provide for CPG bodies to be stationed in the HKSAR to preserve national security.

  1. The CPG is to set up an Office for the Preservation National Security (HK-NSO) in the HKSAR. The CPG’s HK-NSO is to lawfully perform duties for the preservation of national security and exercise relevant powers. 
  2. The duties of the National Security Office (HK-NSO) in Hong Kong are: To analyze and assess the situation of the HKSAR in preserving national security, and to put forward comments and recommendations on major strategies and important policies for the preservation of national security; To oversee, guide, coordinate and support the HKSAR’s performance of its duties to preserve national security; to collect and analyze national security intelligence information; and to handle crimes endangering national security in accordance with law. 
  3. The HK-NSO shall perform its duties strictly in accordance with law, lawfully accept oversight, and must not infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of any individual and organization. In addition to being required to follow national laws, the personnel of the HK-NSO shall follow the laws of the HKSAR. 
  4. The HK-NSO shall establish coordination mechanisms with the HK-NSC to oversee and guide efforts on the preservation of national security in the HKSAR. The HK-NSO’s work departments are to establish coordination mechanisms with the national security law enforcement and judicial organs in the HKSAR, to strengthen information sharing and cooperation in actions.

The draft also makes clear provisions for case jurisdiction and procedures for the HK-NSO and relevant State organs in specified circumstances. It should be explained that the HK-NSO’s and relevant state organs exercise of jurisdiction in specified circumstances over an extremely small set of crimes endangering national security is an important manifestation of the central government’s overall power of governance, and is conducive to supporting and strengthening the HKSAR’ law enforcement and judicial efforts to preserve national security, and is conducive to avoiding the possibility of or the occurrence of emergency situations as provided for in Article 18, paragraph 4, of the Basic Law of the HKSAR.

In its supplementary provisions, the draft provides: Where the local laws of the HKSAR are inconsistent with this Law, the provisions of this Law apply; the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress has the power of to interpret this Law.


起草香港特别行政区维护国家安全法草案遵循的指导思想和工作原则

研究起草香港特别行政区维护国家安全法,必须坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,深入贯彻落实党的十九届四中全会精神和十三届全国人大三次会议精神,根据宪法、香港基本法和全国人大《决定》的有关规定,全面、准确、有效行使全国人民代表大会授予全国人民代表大会常务委员会的相关立法职权,坚持和完善“一国两制”制度体系,充分考虑维护国家安全的现实需要和香港特别行政区的具体情况,对香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制作出系统全面的规定,切实维护国家主权、安全、发展利益,切实维护宪法和基本法确立的特别行政区宪制秩序,为推进香港特别行政区维护国家安全相关制度机制建设、加强香港特别行政区维护国家安全执法司法工作提供有力的宪制依据和法律依据。

研究起草有关法律过程中,注意把握、遵循和体现以下工作原则:一是坚定制度自信,着力健全完善新形势下香港特别行政区同宪法、香港基本法和全国人大《决定》实施相关的制度机制;二是坚持问题导向,着力解决香港特别行政区在维护国家安全方面存在的法律漏洞、制度缺失和工作“短板”问题;三是突出责任主体,着力落实香港特别行政区维护国家安全的宪制责任和主要责任;四是统筹制度安排,着力从国家和香港特别行政区两个层面、法律制度和执行机制两个方面作出系统全面的规定;五是兼顾两地差异,着力处理好本法与国家有关法律、香港特别行政区本地法律的衔接、兼容和互补关系。

法律草案的主要内容

香港特别行政区维护国家安全法草案有6章,分别为总则,香港特别行政区维护国家安全的职责和机构,罪行和处罚,案件管辖、法律适用和程序,中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全机构,附则;共66条。这是一部兼具实体法、程序法和组织法内容的综合性法律,草案主要包括以下几个方面的内容:

(一)明确规定中央人民政府对有关国家安全事务的根本责任和香港特别行政区维护国家安全的宪制责任。(1)中央人民政府对香港特别行政区有关的国家安全事务负有根本责任。香港特别行政区负有维护国家安全的宪制责任,应当履行维护国家安全的职责。香港特别行政区行政机关、立法机关、司法机关应当依据有关法律规定有效防范、制止和惩治危害国家安全的行为和活动。(2)维护国家主权、统一和领土完整是包括香港同胞在内的全中国人民的共同义务。在香港特别行政区的任何机构、组织和个人都应当遵守本法和香港特别行政区有关维护国家安全的其他法律,不得从事危害国家安全的活动。香港特别行政区居民在参选或者就任公职时应当依法签署文件确认或者宣誓拥护中华人民共和国香港特别行政区基本法,效忠中华人民共和国香港特别行政区。(3)香港特别行政区应当尽早完成香港特别行政区基本法规定的维护国家安全立法,完善相关法律。(4)香港特别行政区执法、司法机关应当切实执行本法和香港特别行政区现行法律有关防范、制止和惩治危害国家安全行为的规定,有效维护国家安全。(5)香港特别行政区应当加强维护国家安全和防范恐怖活动的工作。对学校、社会团体等涉及国家安全的事宜,香港特别行政区政府应当采取必要措施,加强监督和管理。

(二)明确规定香港特别行政区维护国家安全应当遵循的重要法治原则。(1)香港特别行政区维护国家安全应当尊重和保障人权,依法保护香港特别行政区居民根据香港特别行政区基本法和《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》《经济、社会与文化权利的国际公约》适用于香港的有关规定享有的包括言论、新闻、出版的自由,结社、集会、游行、示威的自由在内的权利和自由。(2)防范、制止和惩治危害国家安全犯罪,应当坚持法治原则。法律规定为犯罪行为的,依照法律定罪处刑;法律没有规定为犯罪行为的,不得定罪处刑。任何人未经司法机关判罪之前均假定无罪。保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人和其他诉讼参与人依法享有的辩护权和其他诉讼权利。任何人已经司法程序被最终确定有罪或者宣告无罪的,不得就同一行为再予审判或者惩罚。

(三)明确规定香港特别行政区建立健全维护国家安全的相关机构及其职责。(1)香港特别行政区设立维护国家安全委员会,负责香港特别行政区维护国家安全事务,承担维护国家安全的主要责任,并接受中央人民政府的监督和问责。(2)香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会由行政长官担任主席,成员包括政务司司长、财政司司长、律政司司长、保安局局长、警务处处长、警务处维护国家安全部门负责人、入境事务处处长、海关关长和行政长官办公室主任。香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会下设秘书处,由秘书长领导。秘书长由行政长官提名,报中央人民政府任命。(3)香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会的职责为:分析研判香港特别行政区维护国家安全形势,规划有关工作,制定香港特别行政区维护国家安全政策;推进香港特别行政区维护国家安全的法律制度和执行机制建设;协调香港特别行政区维护国家安全的重点工作和重大行动。(4)香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会设立国家安全事务顾问,由中央人民政府指派,就香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会履行职责相关事务提供咨询意见。(5)香港特别行政区政府警务处设立维护国家安全的部门,配备执法力量。(6)香港特别行政区政府律政司设立专门的国家安全犯罪案件检控部门,负责危害国家安全犯罪案件的检控工作和其他相关法律事务。

(四)明确规定四类危害国家安全的罪行和处罚。草案第三章“罪行和处罚”分6节,对分裂国家罪、颠覆国家政权罪、恐怖活动罪、勾结外国或者境外势力危害国家安全罪四类犯罪行为的具体构成和相应的刑事责任,其他处罚规定以及效力范围,作出明确规定。区分不同情形,分别规定四类犯罪行为的刑罚。

(五)明确规定案件管辖、法律适用和程序。(1)除特定情形外,香港特别行政区对本法规定的犯罪案件行使管辖权。(2)香港特别行政区管辖危害国家安全犯罪案件的立案侦查、检控、审判和刑罚的执行等诉讼程序事宜,适用本法和香港特别行政区本地法律。香港特别行政区管辖的危害国家安全犯罪案件的审判循公诉程序进行。(3)香港特别行政区政府警务处维护国家安全部门办理危害国家安全犯罪案件时,可以采取香港特别行政区现行法律准予警方等执法部门在调查严重犯罪案件时采取的各种措施,以及本法规定的有关职权和措施。(4)香港特别行政区行政长官应当从现任或者符合资格的前任裁判官、区域法院法官、高等法院原讼法庭法官、上诉法庭法官以及终审法院法官中指定若干名法官,也可以从暂委或者特委法官中指定法官,负责处理危害国家安全犯罪案件。

(六)明确规定中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全机构。(1)中央人民政府在香港特别行政区设立维护国家安全公署。中央人民政府驻香港特别行政区维护国家安全公署依法履行维护国家安全职责,行使相关权力。(2)驻港国家安全公署的职责为:分析研判香港特别行政区维护国家安全形势,就维护国家安全重大战略和重要政策提出意见和建议;监督、指导、协调、支持香港特别行政区履行维护国家安全的职责;收集分析国家安全情报信息;依法办理危害国家安全犯罪案件。(3)驻港国家安全公署应当严格依法履行职责,依法接受监督,不得侵害任何个人和组织的合法权益。驻港国家安全公署人员除须遵守全国性法律外,还应当遵守香港特别行政区法律。(4)驻港国家安全公署应当与香港特别行政区维护国家安全委员会建立协调机制,监督、指导香港特别行政区维护国家安全工作。驻港国家安全公署的工作部门与香港特别行政区维护国家安全的执法、司法机关建立协作机制,加强信息共享和行动配合。

草案还对驻港国家安全公署和国家有关机关在特定情形下的案件管辖和程序作出了明确规定。需要说明的是,驻港国家安全公署和国家有关机关在特定情形下对极少数危害国家安全犯罪案件行使管辖权,是中央全面管治权的重要体现,有利于支持和加强香港特别行政区维护国家安全执法工作和司法工作,有利于避免可能出现或者导致出现香港特别行政区基本法第十八条第四款规定的紧急状态情形。

草案在附则中规定:香港特别行政区本地法律与本法不一致的,适用本法规定;本法的解释权属于全国人民代表大会常务委员

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